The goal of access control for your business or property is to only allow entry by people who have been identified and authorized. In a low occupancy property, this is typically done by a security officer who checks a photo ID against an authorization list. When the location is one that receives frequent traffic, the process is more complicated.
A uniformed employee would need only a minimum of verification to ensure they are who they claim to be. For residents, hotel guests, shoppers, and other unpredictable visitors, the officer will need to use some combination of protocol, sound security reasoning, and common sense to ascertain the legitimacy of their presence. In order to ensure normal occupants are comfortable in knowing that the visitor is supposed to be there, name tags or passes can be issued.
The concepts of access control are not limited to the physical realm, though often the same basic principles apply. As electronic and digital devices are becoming more integrated into the workspace every day, it is more increasingly important for security officers and their vendors to understand the uses and vulnerabilities of these systems.